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Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

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Urine tests

Clinic tests

We may ask for a sample of urine to check for protein, blood or white cells in the urine.

This test can be performed in clinic using a dip-stick and may indicate inflammation of the kidneys or help with the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection.

Laboratory tests


Urine may be looked at under the microscope to identify the presence of bacteria if:

  • An infection is suspected
  • There is kidney involvement in an inflammatory disease and the red and white cells need monitoring


Urine is placed on agar to see if there is an infection.

Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (urine protein test)

This measures the degree of protein leakage from the kidneys and may help assess the degree of kidney inflammation.

24-hour Urine Protein Test

An alternative to the albumin to creatinine ratio.

Glomerular Filtration Rate

A more detailed analysis of kidney function. It requires collection of urine and a blood test.