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Immunology Laboratory

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Neuronal Antibodies

Paraneoplastic disorders are characterised by the presence of neuronal autoantibodies in patient serum.

The detection of these autoantibodies is useful for the clinician, as it suggests the presence of an underlying tumour.

Tumours that have been known to initiate paraneoplastic disorders include small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), thymoma, neuroblastoma, and breast, ovarian, and testicular cancers.

The following autoantibodies can be found in paraneoplastic syndromes:

Anti-Hu: Type I anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1) is associated with SCLC, resulting in paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis

Anti-Ri: Type II anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-2) is associated with neuroblastoma (children) and fallopian or breast cancer (adults), resulting in paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia (POMA)

Anti-Yo: Anti-Purkinje cell antibody is associated with gynaecological tumours and breast cancer, resulting in PCD

Anti-Tr: Anti-purkinje cell antibody is associated with Hodgkin's disease, resulting in cerebellar degeneration

Anti-Ta (Ma2): Anti-neuronal antibody is associated with testicular tumours, and can lead to limbic or brain stem encephalomyelitis

Amphiphysin: Associated with tumours of the breast or SCLC leading to opsoclonus, ataxia

RMP/CV2: Associated with various tumours, including thymoma, leading to variety of clinical presentations

Zic4: Autoantibodies to Zic4 are associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and the underlying tumor is often a small cell lung cancer

SOX1: In up to 50 percent of patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) - if cancer is detected, almost always a small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In 43 percent of patients with LEMS and SCLC the detectable antibodies are directed to SOX1

Titin: Autoantibodies to Titin can be seen in patients with Myasthenia Gravis and can be associated with the presence of thymoma

Recoverin: Autoantibodies to Recoverin have been associated with cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), a paraneoplastic blinding disease.

Specimen requirements

Serum 1ml; CSF not required but can be analysed


  • Slide testing - £18
  • Immunoblot testing - £35

Laboratory turnaround time

14 days

Laboratory method

Users can choose to have initial screening for Hu/Ri/Yo only, performed by immunofluorescent slide with any positive signal detected on the slide further tested by Immunoblot method.

Alternatively, users can request the immunoblot panel as a first line test.

If immunoblot testing is requested first line, any positive Hu/Ri/Yo results will be confirmed by secondary testing by immunfluorescent slide.

GAD65 antibody testing is performed on the immunoblot panel. Anti-GAD65 antibodies will not be formally measured by this method.

If a sample produces an equivocal or positive result for Anti-GAD65, a comment will be added to the report to highlight this to the user and to recommend requesting GAD antibody testing by the preferred method.

Reference range/units

Immunofluorescence - positive signal determined from 1:100 starting dilution

Immunoblot, measured via EuroBlot one scanning. Results reported as Negative/Equivocal/Positive

Associated tests

Not applicable

Sample stability

4 months at 2-8ºC

Shipping and storage

UK and Ireland

Ambient temperature and first class post. Hays DX users please enquire via email below.


Ambient temperature if courier will deliver within 72 hours otherwise consider refrigerated transport. Freezing is not a requirement.

Ensure delivery Monday to Friday 07:00 - 17:30

Further information and contact details

For further information, email

Last reviewed:09 October 2023