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Immunology Laboratory

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IA2 Antibodies

Also known as: tyrosine phosphatase-related islet antigen 2

IA2 Antibody testing is performed by a referral laboratory. This assay is only available to members of Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

Type 1 diabetes is the result of T-cell mediated destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. There are several antibodies that may be present such as GAD65 antibodies, islet cell antibodies and islet tyrosine phosphatase 2 (IA2) antibodies. These antibodies can be used to predict the onset of diabetes mellitus. In the assessment of first degree relatives for autoimmune diabetes, positive results in more than one of the marker antibodies (GAD, Islet cell, IA2 or insulin) can be associated with the onset of autoimmune diabetes. IA2 antibodies have been shown to be a better marker of glycemic control and of a lower insulin requirement, indicating residual beta-cell function.

This assay is performed at a referral laboratory (external users requiring serum IA2 antibody levels are advised to contact the referral laboratory directly):

Department of Immunology
PO Box 894
Sheffield S5 7YT

Specimen requirements

Serum 1ml; plasma is NOT acceptable



Laboratory turnaround time

28 days

Laboratory method


Reference range/units

DK /ml Units

Negative = Below 97.5th Centile of 2,860 schoolchildren

Weak positive = between 97.5th and 99th centile of 2,860 schoolchildren

Strong positive = above 99th centile of 2,860 schoolchildren

Associated tests


Shipping and storage

Internal hospital transport/courier.

Ensure delivery Monday to Friday 07:00 - 17:30.

Further information and contact details

For further information, email

Last reviewed:21 July 2022