Skip to main content
Immunology Laboratory

This site is best viewed with a modern browser. You appear to be using an old version of Internet Explorer.

Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies

Also known as: IgG Cardiolipin antibody; β-2-glycoprotein I antibody; Cardiolipin

Anti phospholipid syndrome (APS) also known as Hughes syndrome presents with diverse clinical symptoms including thrombosis (arterial and venous) and recurrent miscarriage. Anti-cardiolipin is one of the many antibodies to a variety of phospholipid molecules in APS. Anti cardiolipin antibodies are also present in systemic lupus erythematosus, often in conjunction with a lupus anticoagulant. Antibody levels do not correlate with extent or severity of thrombosis. Moderate rises in anti-cardiolipin antibodies may occur transiently following infection. Lupus anticoagulant studies are performed by Haematology.

Anti-cardiolipin and β-2-glycoprotein I antibodies should be interpreted alongside a patient's Lupus Anticoagulant status and in the context of the clinical history. Please ring Immunology or Dr David Keeling, Consultant Haematologist if you wish to discuss further.

Specimen requirements

Serum 1ml


Price on application

Laboratory turnaround time

3 days

Laboratory method

EliA automated Enzyme Immunoassay

Reference range/units

Beta-2-Glycoprotein (GB2)

>10U/ml = Positive

7-10U/ml = Equivocal

<7​U/ml = Negative

Cardiolipin Antibodies (GCL)

<10 ​U/ml = Negative​

10-40 ​U/ml= Weak Positive

>40 ​U/ml= Positive

Associated tests

Not applicable

Sample stability

2 months at 2-8ºC

Shipping and storage

UK and Ireland

Ambient temperature and first class post. Hays DX users please enquire via email below.


Ambient temperature if courier will deliver within 72 hours otherwise consider refrigerated transport. Freezing is not a requirement.

Ensure delivery Monday to Friday 09:00 - 17:30.

Further information and contact details

For further information, email

Last reviewed:06 October 2023